"There’s no such thing as a Resurrection Stone!"
-- Hermione Granger (DH22)
One of three Deathly Hallows, belonging to the second Peverell brother Cadmus Peverell. Death created this hallow by plucking a stone from a nearby river, according to “The Tale of the Three Brothers”. However, Dumbledore believes, “Whether they met Death on a lonely road…I think it more likely that the Peverell brothers were simply gifted, dangerous wizards who succeeded in creating those powerful objects. The story of them being Death’s own Hallows seems to me the sort of legend that might have sprung up around such creations.” (DH35).
The Resurrection Stone can revive the dead, although not completely. According to the story “The Tale of the Three Brothers”, Cadmus used the Stone to revive his passed love, and eventually killed himself to truly join her. (DH21) It was passed down for generations until it got lost in the forest in the Battle of Hogwarts, 1998.
Rowling stated that she assumes that the Stone was stepped on by the Centaurs as they charged into the battle. It is now forever lost, buried in the forest (BLC).
The Hallow that Dumbledore most craved when he was young (DH35), the Resurrection Stone has had comparatively few recent owners. It was passed down from Cadmus Peverell through the generations, and made into a ring (HBP10). This ring was still in the family in the early twentieth century, owned by Marvolo Gaunt, who believed the symbol on it to be the Peverell coat of arms (HBP10). It was later stolen by Tom Riddle, turned into a Horcrux (HBP17), and eventually hidden in the ruins of the Gaunt House (HBP23).
Albus Dumbledore sought out this Horcrux to destroy it, but before he could do so his desire to see his parents and sister got the better of him, and he put the ring on, enacting a terrible curse. He quickly destroyed the ring, but the damage was done - the curse had rendered his hand useless, and nearly killed him as well (DH33, DH35). He passed the stone along to Harry in his will, hidden inside a Golden Snitch (DH34).
Harry was walking to meet Voldemort and give up his life, he pulled the Resurrection Stone from the Snitch, turned it over in his hands three times, and met shadows of his parents, Sirius Black, and Remus Lupin. He later dropped the stone in the woods accidentally (DH34), and decided not to return and search for it, in the hopes that it too would be lost forever (DH36).
The only Horcrux that is also a Hallow