"Well, Potter, this meeting is to talk over any career ideas you might have, and to help you decide which subjects you should continue into the sixth and seventh years. Have you had any thoughts about what you would like to do after you leave Hogwarts?"
-- McGonagall (OP29)
Hogwarts students receive career advice from their Heads of House in their OWL year, some weeks prior to the examinations, to help establish what subjects the students need to concentrate on to achieve the required OWL and NEWT scores for their chosen occupations.
In the UK version of the books, it is called "career advice".
In fifth year, the students get Careers advice, which should help students choose their NEWT subjects. Bill told Ron about it (OP12). Before their examination, during the Easter break, the students receive a batch of leaflets, advertising different jobs available to Hogwarts students and the NEWTs required for them (OP29). Examples are: Healing, Muggle relations, Wizard banking, Training security trolls, and working at the Department of Magical Accidents and Catastrophes.
During the first week of summer term, the students discuss their future careers with the Head of Houses during a careers appointment (OP29, also called careers consultation). Harry discusses his whish to become an Auror with McGonagall, who describes it as a difficult career path to take. The requirements are high: five NEWTS and passing of character and aptitude tests. Auror training then takes another three years of study.
Percy is still reading about his future career possibilities after his careers advice. In Diagon Alley, he reads about the later careers of Howarts prefects, just before he starts his sixth year (CS4).
Harry first thought of his career after Hogwarts when he discussed it with fake Moody in his fourth year (GF9). Moody suggested that he (and Hermione) would be suitable to become Aurors.
We actually only see Harry's careers appointment with McGonagall, and also do not hear about the discussion she must have had with either Hermione or Ron (OP29), or with Ginny in the year after that.
Oddly enough, the students of Hogwarts do not appear to receive similar counselling at the end of their second year, when they choose the elective subjects that may determine their future careers.