The term was used in Goodwin Kneen’s twelfth century letter to his Norwegian cousin Olaf. In his letter Goodwin says that his wife Gunhilda was supposed to have been the “Catcher” during a game he had played in Yorkshire, but she had been unwell with Dragon Pox and unable to play (QA3).
A catcher is a person (or thing) that catches something, and is derived from Latin captāre "to strive to seize, seek to catch, lie in wait for" (Oxford English Dictionary).
Lexicon list of Quidditch players
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Harry Potter Wiki: Chaser
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